Journalism is the investigation of and reporting of events, issues and trends to be abroad audience. This audience may be readers, listeners or viewers. Truth is the cornerstone of journalism. Access to information, a curious mind and broad liberal knowledge are attributes of an intending journalist. The focus of journalism is News and this is communicated in newspapers, magazines, journals, tabloids, radio, television and the internet. Below are the types of journalism practiced in Nigeria. They include:
- Arts Journalism: This is the reporting and commentary on the arts, including, but not limited to announcements and reviews of films, literature, music, theatre productions and architectural designs.
- Business and Trade Journalism: This is the reporting that tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the economic changes that take place in a society. While Trade reports on the movements and developments of the business by way of articles and analyses.
- Entertainment Journalism: This is the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues, and people associated with entertainment. It could also be called infotainment or edutainment.
- Medical Journalism: This is the dissemination of health-related information through mainstream media outlets, including scientific journals.
- Music Journalism: This is media criticism and reporting about popular music topics, including pop music, rock music ad related styles.
- Political Journalism: This is the coverage of all aspects of politics, especially of civil governments and political power.
- Sports Journalism: This reports on sports topics and events including commentating.
- Technology Journalism: This announces, previews and reviews new technology like gadgets, computers, home appliances, etc and technology related events.
- Traffic Journalism: This reports road conditions such as traffic congestion, detours and traffic accidents.
- Weather Forecasting: This is the application of meteorological science and technology to predict and report the state of the atmosphere for a given location.
- Fashion Journalism: This reports and writes on the latest fashion trends, red carpet events, dressing etiquette, fashion exhibition and shows, celebrity hang outs.
The Genres of Journalism in Nigeria are listed below:
- Advocacy Journalism: This intentionally and transparently adopts a non-objective viewpoint, usually for some social or political purpose.
- Analytical Journalism: This seeks to improve public understanding by making sense of complex situations via analyses and expert commentary.
- Broadcast Journalism: This is a field of news and journals which are published by electrical means. i.e. radio, television, internet.
- Citizen Journalism: This is reporting in which public citizens play an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information. It is also called Public, Participatory, Democratic or Street Journalism.
- Investigative Journalism: This is a form of journalism that applies investigative methods such as hidden cameras and going undercover usually to expose crime, political corruption or corporate wrong doing.
- We also have Civic, Collaborative, Comic (use of words, pictures and cartoons to narrate an event or situation), Community, Online, Opinion, Peace, Photo, and Tabloid Journalism.
The Nigerian Institute of Journalism is the school tasked with the responsibility of training prospective journalists in Nigeria. They have diploma, higher national diploma and post graduate diploma courses. For ordinary diploma, all that’s required is five O’ level results in not more than two sittings and the UTME result. At the completion of four semesters, candidate receives a diploma certificate in mass communication (not journalism). For higher national diploma, candidate should have an ordinary national diploma certificate from a recognized institution with at least lower credit in Mass Communication and one year post national diploma industrial attachment experience. For post graduate diploma, candidate must have a good higher national diploma result or university degree in any discipline, and show evidence of participation in NYSC or letter of exemption. The post graduate diploma offers courses in print, broadcast journalism, public relations and advertising. At the completion of any of the above listed programs, successful graduates become members of the Nigerian Union of Journalists whose code of ethics states that “Journalism entails high degree of public trust. To earn and maintain trust, it is morally imperative for every journalist to observe the highest professional and ethical standards”.