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NEThis tutorial is for the use of beginners who want to learn Yoruba and those who want to speak it as a second language (L2). The set of people that fall into this category are:

■ Those who marry to Yoruba spouses.

■ Students learning Yoruba as a second language (L2).

■ Yoruba children born abroad.

■ Those who have interest in speaking the language.

It is written in a Teach-Yourself format. It is highly interractive. A reader studies a lesson and tests himself through series of “Brainwork” provided in the tutorial.

Because it is a tutorial meant for beginners, some basic grammatical rules and orthography are adjusted to make learning easier for users.

 

The peculiar problem a learner of a new language faces is how to correctly pronounce new words. Being able to correctly pronounce new words encourages a learner to keep on. With the knowledge of the tone marks, an audio

assistance will only become a catalyst and not essentially a necessity.

CHAPTER 1 – ORÍ KÌNÍ ÍN

THE YORUBA ALPHABETS – ÀWỌN

ALÚFÁBẸ́Ẹ̀TÌ YORÙBÁ

There are twenty – five (25) alphabets in Yoruba language. They are:

A B D E Ẹ F G GB H I J K L M N O Ọ P R S Ṣ T U

NOTE – Àkíyèsí:

Letters like, c, q, v, x and z are not among Yoruba alphabets.

How to Pronounce the Alphabets:

The Yoruba Alphabets Similar Pronunciation In English

A ah

B bee

D dee

E hay

Ẹ air

F fee

G gee (as in go)

GB (has no English similarity)

H hee

I ee

J jee

K key

L lee

M mee

N nee

O oh

Ọ or

P pee

R ree

S see

Ṣ she

T tea

U ooh

W wee

Y yee

Yoruba Vowels – Awọn Fawẹli Yoruba

Yoruba alphabets contains only seven (7) vowels, namely:

a e ẹ i o ọ u

a (ah) e (hay) ẹ (air) i (ee) o (oh) ọ (or) u (ooh)

In the same vein there are eighteen (18) consonants:

Yoruba Consonants – Awọn Kọ́nsónántì Yoruba

b d f g gb h j k l m n p r s ṣ t w y

Let’s make some two letter words, using consonant + vowel.

Forming Two-Letter Words – Kíkọ Àwọn Ọ̀rọ̀ Oní-Lẹ́tà Méjì.

b = ba (bah) be(bay) bẹ (bair) bi (bee) bo (boh) bọ(bor) bu(boo)

d = da (dah) de(day) dẹ (dair) di (dee) do (doh) dọ(dor) du(boo)

f = fa (fah) fe(fay) fẹ (fair) fi (fee) fo (foh) fọ(for) fu(foo)

g = ga (gah) ge(gay) gẹ (gair) gi (gee) go (go) gọ(gor) gu(goo)

h = ha (hah) he(hay) hẹ (hair) hi (hee) ho (hoh) họ(hor) hu(hoo)

wa (wah) we(way) wẹ (wair) wi (wee) wo (woh) wọ(wor) wu(woo)

By yourself, form more of these two-letter words with the

remaining consonants; gb, j, k, l, m, etc

TONAL MARKS:

The tone marks adopted to help in pronouncing Yoruba words are the

first three musical notes;

‘do’ ‘re’ ‘mi’

“do” is the low tone. The sign representing this is ( ̀ )

“re” is the medium tone. It has no sign representation

“mi” is the high tone. The sign representing this is ( ́ )

*These tone marks are strictly placed on Yoruba vowels, except in

few instances they are used on letter ‘n’.

For instance, try to call these common words below. Let the tones in

the brackets above guide you. Pronounce the corresponding tone mark

before pronouncing the word.

BRAINWORK

WORD TONE

(i). Come – wá ‘mi’ wá

(ii). Child – ọmọ re re ọmọ

(iii). A name – Adé re mi Adé

(iv). Cooked garri – ẹ̀bà do do ẹ̀bà

NASAL VOWELS – ÀWỌN FÁWẸ̀LÌ ÀRÁNMÚPÈ

These are five nasal vowels, namely:

an, ẹn, in, ọn, un

The Nasals How to Pronounce

i. -an e.g. san – to pay is pronounced ‘sun’

ii. -ẹn e.g. yẹn – that is pronounced (Japanese)‘Yen’

iii. -in e.g. dín – to fry is pronounced as ‘dean’

iv. -ọn e.g. pọ́n – to be ripe is pronounced the same as ‘an’

in (i) above.

v. -un e.g. fún – to give is pronounced as ‘foon’ and not

as ‘fun’

Now try and pronounce the words below.

1. rán – to sew; yán – to yawn;

ọsàn – orange

2. yẹn – that hẹn – yes

3. pín – to divide; sín – to sneeze rìn – to walk

4. fọn – to blow [a trumpet]; pọ́n – to be ripe

ẹ̀fọn – mosquito

5. sùn – to sleep; sún – to shift; sun – to burn

6. Ọsàn yẹn – That orange.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL – ẸYỌ ÀTI Ọ̀PỌ̀

The article ‘àwọn’ is used to express plurality of Yoruba nouns.

Ẹyọ Ọ̀pọ̀

ọsàn – orange àwọn ọsàn – oranges

ẹ̀fọn – mosquito àwọn ẹ̀fọn – mosquitoes

ọmọ – child àwọn ọmọ – children

ilé – house àwọn ilé – houses

ènìyàn – person àwọn ènìyàn – persons/people

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2 – ORÍ ÈKEJÌ

COUNTING – ÒǸKÀ

Numeral Cardinals Ordinals Frequency

1 ọ̀kan/ení 1st – èkíní once – ẹ̀ẹ̀kan

2 méjì 2nd – èkejì twice – ẹ̀ẹ̀mejí

3 mẹ́ta 3rd – ẹ̀kẹta thrice – ẹ̀ẹ̀mẹta

4 mẹ́rin 4th – ẹ̀kẹrin 4x – ẹ̀ẹ̀mẹrin

5 márùn ún 5th – ẹ̀karùn ún 5x – ẹ̀ẹ̀marùn ún

6 mẹ́fà 6th – ẹ̀kẹfà 6x – ẹ̀ẹ̀mẹfà

7 méje 7th – èkeje 7x – ẹ̀ẹ̀meje

8 mẹ́jọ 8th – ẹ̀kẹjọ 8x – ẹ̀ẹ̀mẹẹjọ

9 mẹ́sán án 9th – ẹ̀kẹsàn án 9x – ẹ̀ẹ̀mẹsàn án

10 mẹ́wàá 10th – ẹ̀kẹwàá 10x – ẹ̀ẹ̀mẹwàá

E.g. First orange – ọsàn èkíní [not èkíní ọsàn]

Three children – àwọn ọmọ mẹ́ta [not àwọn mẹ́ta ọmọ]

1 The fifth orange – ————-

2 The ninth child – ————-

3 ——————- – ọmọ ẹ̀kẹta

4 ——————- – ọsàn ẹ̀kẹrin

NOTE: From here, we will start to use the contracted form of ‘ọkan’ = 1 as ‘kan’

For Example – Fún Àpẹẹrẹ:

i One orange = ọsàn ọ̀kan. (ọsàn kan)

ii Two children = àwọn ọmọ méjì

iii Ten houses = àwọn ilé mẹ́wàá

iv Four people – àwọn ènìyàn mẹ́rin

v Sixth person – ènìyàn ẹ̀kẹfà.

BRAINWORK:

1. One child – ————————–

2. Ten people – —————————

3. ————————— – àwọn ilé mẹ́jọ.

4. ————————— àwọn ènìyàn màrún ún

5. Seven children – ————————–

6. ————————- – àwọn ọsàn mẹ́jọ.

More On Numbers i.e. 11 to 20

Numbers from 11 to 14 shall be done first. The secret is to

just add ‘lá’ at the end of ‘ọ̀kan’ ‘méjì’ e.t.c

1 – ọ̀kan 11 – mọ̀kànlá 11th – ẹ̀kọkànlá

2 _ méjì 12 – méjìlá 12th – èkejìlá

3 – mẹ́ta 13 – mẹ́tàlá 13th – ẹ̀kẹtàlá

4 – mẹ́rin 14 – mẹ́rìnlá 14th – ẹ̀kẹrìnlá

Numbers 15 to 20 requires a little subtraction to understand.

5 less from 20 = 15

4 less from 20 = 16 ETC

“less from” means“dín” in Yorùbá, while “20” is “ogún”.

Therefore, let’s start counting in the same way:

15 = màrúndínlógún i.e. 5(márùn ún) less from (din) 20 (ogun)

16 = mẹ́rìndínlógún i.e. (4 less from 20)

17 = mẹ́tàdínlógún i.e. (3 less from 20)

18 = méjìdínlógún i.e. (2 less from 20)

19 = mọ́kàndínlógún i.e. (1 less from 20)

20 = ogún

We shall stop counting for now.

1. Count 1 to 20 in Yorùbá, at a stretch, orally,

2. Write down 1 – ọ̀kan to 20 – ogún, in Yorùbá, by heart.

3. Sixteen children – ọmọ ______

4. _______________ – àwọn ọsán méjìlá

5. Eighteen houses – _______________________

6. _____________ – àwọn ọmọ marundinlogun

7. Seventeen people – _______________

8. Seventeenth person – _____________

9. 3 oranges – _____________

10. _____________ – ẹ̀fọn mẹ́fà

 

 

 

GREETINGS -ÌKÍNI

day – ọjọ́

morning – àárọ̀

afternoon – ọ̀sán

evening – alẹ́

sunset – ìrọ̀lẹ́

return – àbọ̀

work/job – iṣẹ́

tomorrow – ọ̀la

today – òní

yesterday – àná

be watchful/sorry/take heart – pẹ̀lẹ́

week – ọ̀ṣẹ̀

month – oṣù

year – ọdún

time – àsìkò, àkókò

period/season – ìgbà

‘Good’ is taken to be ‘Ẹ kú’

Good + morning = Ẹ kú + àárọ̀

Thanks [for] + yesterday = Ẹ ṣé + àná

Good morning – Ẹ kú àárọ̀

Good afternoon – Ẹ kú ọ̀sán

Good return – Ẹ kú àbọ̀ [i.e. Welcome]

Good afternoon – Ẹ kú ọ̀sán

To Bid someone ‘Till Morning’, ‘Afternoon’ etc

‘Till’ is translated as ‘Ó dà ..…’

Till + tomorrow – Ó dà + ọ̀la

Till tomorrow – Ó dà ọ̀la

Till + afternoon = Ó dà + ọ̀sán

Till afternoon = Ó dà ọ̀sán

Till tomorrow – Ó dà ọ̀la

Till sunset – Ó dà ìrọ̀lẹ́

Till morning – Ó dà àárọ̀ [i.e. Good night]

Till you return – Ó dà àbọ̀. [i.e. Good bye]

Other Greetings are:

Sorry/ It is a pity – Pẹ̀lẹ́

Thank you – O ṣé

Thanks [for] yesterday – O ṣé àná

It’s quite a long time – Ẹ kú ọjọ́ mẹ́ta [Literally, this means, ‘it’s

been some three days’]

BRAINWORK

1 Good evening – ——————————-

2 Good return (Welcome) – —————————

1. Good job (Well-done) ——————————-

2. ——————————— – Ò dà ọ̀sán.

3. ———————————- – Ẹ kú ọjọ́ mẹ́ta

4. ———————————- – Ò dà alẹ́

5. Thanks – —————–

6. ——————————- – Ọdún mẹ́fà

7. One week – ——————————-

8. The fourth month – ——————————

More on Greetings:

How is it? – Báwo ni / Ṣé dáradára ni?

How is work? = Báwo ni iṣẹ́?

Some Greetings and How to Respond to them:

NOTE – Àkíyèsí:

For greetings referring to times of the day, you will respond to

‘Ẹ kú’ and ‘Ó dà’ forms of greetings by saying back the greetings that

is said to you.

Greetings – Ìkíni Response – Ìdáhùn

Ẹ kú àárọ̀ – Good morning Ẹ kú àárọ̀ – Good morning

Ó dà ọ̀la – Till tomorrow Ó dà ọ̀la – Till tomorrow

‘Ẹ kú ilé’ is the response to ‘Ẹ kú àbọ̀’

But for those of ‘How is……?’ – ‘Báwo ni’; ‘A dúpẹ́’ is the ideal

Ìkíni Ìdáhùn

How is it? – Bawo ni/Ṣe dáradára ni? A dúpẹ́

How is work? = Báwo ni iṣẹ́? A dúpẹ́

DAYS OF THE WEEK – ÀWỌN ỌJỌ́ Ọ̀ṢẸ̀

Sunday – Ọjọ́-Àìkú/Ìsinmi

Monday – Ọjọ́-Ajé

Tuesday – Ọjọ́-Ìṣẹ́gun

Wednesday – Ọjọ́-Rú

Thursday – Ọjọ́-Bọ

Saturday – Ọjọ́-Àbámẹ́ta

MONTHS OF THE YEAR – ÀWỌN OṢÙ INÚ ỌDÚN

February – Èrèlé

March – Ẹrẹ́nà

April – Igbe

May – Èbìbí

June – Òkúdù

July – Agẹmọ

August – Ògún

September – Owewe

October – Ọ̀wàrà

November – Bélú

December – Ọ̀pẹ

 

CHAPTER 4 – ORÍ KẸRIN

PARTS OF THE BODY – ÀWỌN Ẹ̀YÀ ARA

hair – irun

forehead – iwájú-orí

nose – imú

neck – ọrùn

shoulder – èjìká

chest – àyà

stomach – ikùn

wrist – ọrùn-ọwọ́

finger – ìka-ọwọ́

thigh – itan

knee – orúnkún

shin – ojùgun

toe – ìka-ẹsẹ̀

buttock – ìbàdí/ìdí

head -orí

eye – ojú

ear – etí

mouth – ẹnu

tongue – ahọ́n

lip – ètè

teeth – eyín

chin – àgbọ̀n

arm – apá

hand – ọwọ́

back – ẹ̀yìn

leg – ẹsẹ̀

buttock – ìbàdí/ìdí

BRAINWORK

1. One head – ————————————————

2. ————————— – Ojú méjì

3. The third finger – ìka-ọwọ́ – ———–

4. Teeth – —————

5. Stomach – —————————-

6. —————————– – ẹ̀hìn

7. Forehead – —————————-

8. ———————- – ẹnu

9. The second ear – —————–

10. One leg – —————–

11. —————– – ìka-ẹsẹ̀ mẹ́wàá

Expressing Feelings in Parts of the Body – Ìmọ̀lára

1. My head aches/I have headache – Orí n fọ mi.

2. My ear aches – Etí n ro mi

3. She had toothache – Eyín n ro ó.

4. They have back pain – Ẹ̀yìn n dùn wọ́n

5. They are happy – Inú wọn dùn

6. He had stomach-ache – Inú n ro ó

 

 

CHAPTER 5 – ORÍ KARÙN ÚN

         PRONOUNS – Ọ̀RỌ̀ ARỌ́PÒ-ORÚKỌ

 

Note:

mú….wá’ and

‘fi……sílẹ̀’ are example of split verb in Yoruba.

 

Vocabulary

come

eat – jẹ/jẹun

know – mọ̀

write – kọ; kọ̀wé

read – kà; kàwé

clap – pàtẹ́wọ́

bring – mú….wá

to leave – fi……sílẹ̀

sleep – sùn

 

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun.

E.g. (i) Charles comes – He comes                               

(ii) Charles wá – Ó wá.

‘Ó’ is used instead of ‘Charles’

therefore

         ‘Ó’   is a pronoun.

Àkíyèsí:

       ‘Ó’ is used as the pronoun for He; She and It.

 

Below are the first set of pronoun:

           Pronoun                                       Usage

(i)   I – Mo                      e.g. I sleep – Mo sùn

(ii) You – O                    e.g. You sleep – O sùn

(iii) He/She/It – Ó           e.g. He/She/It sleep – Ó   sùn

  1. IV) They – Wọn              e.g. They sleep – Wọn sùn

(v) We – A                     e.g. We sleep – A sùn

(IV) You (plural) – Ẹ      e.g. You sleep – Ẹ sùn.

 

The second sets of pronoun are still on the use of I, you, he, she, it and they e.t.c. They can take other forms when:

 

i    When Laying Emphasis on Person/s.

For instance:         

        I am – Èmi ni

You are – Ìwọ ni.

They are – Àwọn ni

We are – Àwa ni

She/He – Òun ni

You {plural} are – Ẹ̀̀yin ni

It is Meg – Mẹgi ni

 

  1. Making a Negative Statement.

         I am not or – Èmi kọ́.

You are not or It is not you – Ìwọ kọ́.

They are not or It is not they –  Àwọn kọ́.

Bonnke is not or It is not Bonnke – Bonnke kọ́.

 

  1. Introducing Oneself/a Thing.         

  E.g. I am Francis – Èmi ni Francis

          I am not Gerald – Èmi kọ́ ni Gerald.

               He is not Usman – Òun kọ́ ni Usman

             We are Chinwe and Silvia – Àwa ni Chinwe àti Silvia.

 

                                                                              ETC

 

In summary, these pronouns have two forms each:

I – Mo or Èmi

You – O or Ìwọ

They – Wọn or Àwọn

We – A or Àwa

He/She/It – Ò or Òun

You [pl.] = Ẹ, or Ẹ̀̀yin

Èmi, Ìwọ, Àwọn, Àwa, Òun, Ẹ̀̀yin are also known as Pronominals.

 

BRAINWORK

  1. It is they – …………….
  2. Ìwo kọ́ ni Tunde ………………
  3. Àwa ni, ìwọ kọ́ ……………………..
  4. They are Liverpool FC ……………………
  5. We are not Chinwe and Silvia ……………
  6. I am not Sola ……………………….
  7. It is not Ghana ………………..
  8. It is not Physics, it is Chemistry – …………
  9. I am Auwa Ahmed – …………………..

 

The Third Set of Pronoun are as Follows:

my –  mi

your – rẹ

his/her –  rẹ̀

our – wa

their – wọn

your [plural] – yín

LÍLÒ

My book – Ìwé mi           [not mi ìwé]           

Not my book – Ìwé mi kọ́

 

Your chair – Àga rẹ.

Not your chair – Àga rẹ kọ́

 

His/Her chair – Àga rẹ̀

Their house – Ilé wọn

 

Our teacher – Olùkọ́ wa

Not our teacher – Olùkọ́ wa kọ́

Your [pl.] teacher – Olùkọ́ yín

 

BRAINWORK

  1. olùkọ́ mi – ……………
    1. olùkọ́ mi kọ́ – ……………
  1. our house – ……………..
  1. orí mi – ….. head

             ẹ. ọmọ rẹ̀ – her …………….

  1. their chair – ………………..         
  2. our book – ………………….
  3. ilé yín  – …………………
  4. àga rẹ – …………………….
  5. ọmọ rẹ̀ kọ́ – ……. her child

           

 

In forming fairly long sentences, the first set and the third set of the pronouns can be combined and used as below:

 

We know – A mọ̀

NOTE:

“not” =  kó

“do not/does not/did not” = kò

our = wa

come = wá

 

We do not know – Àwa mọ̀.

 

I see my book –   Mo rí ìwé mi

They see your chair – Wọn rí àga rẹ

He enters his house – Ó wọ̀ ilé rẹ̀

 

He does not enter his house – Òun wọ̀ ilé rẹ̀

 

She enters her house – O wọ̀ ilé rẹ̀

They see their house – Wọn rí ile wọn.

 

We greet our teacher – A kí olùkọ́ wa.

We do not greet our teacher – Àwa kí olùkọ́ wa

 

You all see your teacher – Ẹ rí olùkọ́ yín

You do not see your teacher – Ẹ̀̀yin kò rí olùkọ́ yín .

       

It enters our houseÓ wọ̀ ilé wa

       It does not enter our houseÒun kò wọ̀ ilé wa

 

Pronouns as Objects in Sentences:

         E.g. me, them, us, you, him, her, it, e.t.c

The sentence;

                             I saw Francis and Louis.  

Can be rewritten as:

                            I saw them

        ‘them’ is the object of the sentence ‘I saw them’

                 I saw them = Mo rí wọn.

“wọn” is the object in the sentence, ‘Mo  rí  wọn

as

“them” is the object of the sentence,  ‘I saw them’  

 

All the pronouns in this category are:

                 me – mi

                 them – wọn

                          us – wa

                 you – ọ

  yín  – you [plural] i.e. ‘you both’ or ‘you all’

 

‘Fi…sílẹ̀’ and ‘Mú…wá are examples of split verbs in Yoruba

 

       We see them  –  A   rí  wọn.

       We do not see them  –  Àwa kò rí  wọn.

       He knows me – Ó mọ̀ mi.

I know you [all] – Mo mọ̀ yín .

I do not know you all  – Èmi kò mọ̀ yín .

They see you – Wọn rí .

                 They do not see you – Awọn kò rí

                

                 Leave me – Fi   mi sílẹ̀

                 Do not leave me – Má fi mi sílẹ̀

                 Bring them – Mú wọn

                 Do not bring them – Má mú wọn

 

BRAINWORK

  1. Jackson saw them – Jackson rí …………..
  2. We know you [all] – A mọ̀ …….
  3. We do

 

Asking of Questions – [Interrogative Pronouns]

These are pronouns used to ask questions or are used instead of a noun. E.g. Who, Whose, Which, What, Do/Does, How, e.t.c

 

 What – Kíni

         Who? –Tani?

 Whose? – Titani?

 Where? – Nibo?                           

          Why? – Kíni ìdí/Nítorí kíni?

 When? – Nígbàwo?

 How? – Báwo?

          Do/Does/Did – Ṣé

 

Let’s now treat them deeper:

  1.     When? – Nigbàwo?

When is it?  –  Nigbàwo ni?   

When do you sleep?  –  Nigbàwo ni o sùn?

 

B Where? – Níbo?

        Where is it/he/she? – Níbo ni ó wà?

        Where am I – Níbo ni mo wà?

Where are you? – Níbo ni o wà?

        Where is your book?  –  Níbo ni ìwé rẹ wà?

 

        Where are they living?  – Níbo ni wọn n gbé?

        Where are they sleeping?  – Níbo ni wọn n sùn?

 

C What?  –  Kíni?

What is that?  –  Kíni yẹn?

 

CHAPTER 6 – ORÍ KẸFÀ

TENSES

 

Before we learn tenses, we need to know some common verbs:

Vocabularies: [Some Verbs]

want – fẹ́

write – kọ; kọ̀wé

teach – kọ́

learn – kẹ́kọ̀ọ́

read – kà; kàwé

cook – ṣè, dáná

burn – jó; jóná

dance – jó

sing – kọrin    [orin – song]

do – ṣé             [iṣẹ́ – work]

eat – jẹ/jẹun    [oúnjẹ – food]

drink – mu            [omi – water]

sit – jókòó

stand – dìde

sleep – sùn

wake [up] – jí

see – rí

know – mọ̀

forget – gbàgbé

remember – rántì

wear [or dress up] – wọ̀

wear [put on] – wọ̀ or dé; [i.e. to put on cap – dé fìlà; to put

on shoes – wọ̀ bàtà]

undress – bọ́; bọ́ aṣọ

enter – wọlé

go out – jáde

resemble – jọ

pound- gún [pounded yam – iyán]

sweep – gbálẹ̀

beat – lù

flog – nà

slap – gbá……létí f.a. slap Kenneth – gbá Keneti létí

come – wá;      bọ̀ [in continuous tense];   [in perfect

tense]

go – lọ

watch – wò

listen – gbọ́

carry – gbé

` wash – fọ́ to wash plate – fọ̀ àwo

break – fọ́; kán;  ṣẹ́ [to break a cup – fọ́ ife; to

break a chair leg = kán ẹsẹ̀ àga]

open –ṣí

close – pa…..dé      to close door – pa ìlẹ̀kùn dé; to close    your mouth – pa ẹnu

lock – tì … pa

grind – lọ̀

cut – gé

stir – rò or tẹ̀                [to stir yam flour – rò àmàlà;

             to stir garri – tẹ̀ ẹ̀bà]

In this chapter, the forms of tenses to be treated are the future, simple, continuous, and perfect tense.

Unlike English, Yoruba language doesn’t have past tense form. Past evnts sre identified by adverbs like; yesterday – ní àná; in the morning – ní àárọ̀; not long ago – ní ẹ̀ẹ̀kan; in the afternoon – ní ọ̀sán etc

 

FUTURE TENSE

Two forms of future tenses in the format:

‘…..want [to]’ – ‘……..fẹ́’

‘……will – ‘…….máa’

 

Examples – Àwọn Àpẹẹrẹ

I want or I want to – Mo fẹ́

I do not want /I do not want to – Èmi kò fẹ́

 

I want to sleep – Mo fẹ́ sùn

I do not want to sleep – Èmi fẹ́ sùn

 

I want rice – Mo fẹ́ ìrẹsì

I do not want rice – Èmi kò fẹ́ ìrẹsì

 

IṢẸ́ ỌPỌLỌ                          

  1. I want to eat garri – _________________
  2. I will sleep – _________________
  3. We want to go – ______________
  4. You all want rice – ____________
  5. Ó fẹ́ iyán – ____________
  6. Wọn fẹ́ sùn – _______________
  7. Ṣé wọn fẹ́ máa lọ?  – _______________
  8. Kini wọn fẹ́ jẹ? – __________________
  9. Which does he want? – ______________
  10. He wants four cups of water – __________
  11. We want our pot of soup – ____________
  12. Ẹ̀yin kò fẹ́ wa – _______________
  13. They do not want to drink water – __________
  14. Ẹ̀yin kò fẹ́ wá – _________________
  15. What do they want? – ____________
  16. Emi kò fẹ́ gbálẹ́  – ______________
  17. What do they see? – ___________

 

COMPARE:

I eat – Mo jẹun

I do/did not eat – Èmi kò jẹun

 

I will eat – Mo máa jẹ

Iwill not – Èmi kò ni jẹ

 

Do you eat? – Ṣé o jẹun?

Will you eat? – Ṣé o máa jẹ?

 

‘….will’ – ‘….máa’

I will…. – Mo máa …..

I will sleep – Mo máa sùn

I will not sleep – Èmi kò ni sùn

 

For instance – Fún àpẹẹrẹ:

I will – Mo máa ……

I will not – Èmi kò ní ….

You will eat – O máa jẹun

You will not eat – Ìwọ kò ni jẹun.

Will you cook food? – Ṣé o maá ṣè oúnjẹ

Will you not eat? – Ṣé ìwọ kò ní jẹun?

I will not eat – Èmi kò ní jẹun

We will pray –   A máa gbàdúrà

We will not pray – Àwa kò ní gbàdúrà

Where will they go? –  Níbo ni wọn máa lọ?

No, I will not go – Rárá, èmi kò ní lọ.

 

IṢẸ́ ỌPỌLỌ      

1 We will eat garri – ____________

2 I will go – _____________________

3 O máa ṣè ọbẹ̀   – ________________

4 Ó máa sùn – ___________________

5 Kíni wọn máa jẹ? – _______________

6 Will you sit? – __________________

7 We will not sit – _________________

8 Wọn máa gbàdúrà – ______________

9 Èmi kò ní gbàdúrà – ______________

10 Where will she go? – _____________

11 You all will not listen – ___________

12 They will not sit – ___________

  1.    Rárá, ìwọ kò ni jáde – __________

 

Use of ‘can’ – ‘lè’

Usage – Lílò:

1 I can do it – Mo lè ṣe é.

 

 

CHAPTER 7 – ORÍ KEJE

   OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH

Vocabulary:

Home – Ilé

man – ọkùnrin boy  –  ọmọkùnrin

woman – obìnrin girl  –  ọmọbìnrin

father – bábà grandfather – bábà-àgbà

mother –  ìyá grandmother  –  ìyá-àgbà

parent – òbí

N.B In Yorubaland ‘uncle’ and ‘cousin’ ‘nephew’ or ‘niece’ are often regarded to as ‘brothers’  if male, or ‘sisters’  if female.

 

Bride/wife – ìyàwó

Bridegroom – ọkọ ìyàwó                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

husband – ọkọ

elder – ẹ̀gbọ́n

elder brother – ẹ̀gbọ́n ọkùnrin

younger – àbúrò obìnrin

younger brother  – àbúrò ọkùnrin

elder sister – ẹ̀gbọ́n obìnrin

person/somebody – ènìyàn

room – yàrà

broom – ìgbálẹ̀

knife – ọ̀bẹ

soup – ọbẹ̀.

spoon – ṣíbí

pot – ìkòkò

water – omi

soup pot  –  ìkòkò ọbẹ̀

water pot  –  ìkòkò omi

seat – ìjòkó

chair – àga

table – tábílì

cloths – aṣọ

tops (shirts or jumper or captan) – ẹ̀wù

Trousers/shorts – ṣòkòtò

Blouse – bùbá

Wrapper –ìró

Entrance – ẹnu-ọ̀nà   

Mortar – odó

Pestle – ọmọ-odó

Stirrer – orógùn

Stool – àpótí

Lamp  – àtùpà

 

Preposition

A prepositions is a word that shows the position between two items.

The common prepositions are:

in/inside – inú

out/outside – ìta

before/infront – iwájú

back/behind/after – ẹ̀hìn

side/beside –  ẹ̀gbẹ́

under/beneath – abẹ́

above/on/over – orì

corner – igun

up/on top –  òkè.

down – ilẹ̀ (same with “ground”–ilẹ̀)

among/between – ààrin

from – láti

about – nípa

with – pẹ̀lú

to – sí

at – ní

for – fún

after – kọjá (in telling the clock time)

before – kù  (in telling the clock time)

of – ti

 

N.B.

In the use of preposition in sentences:

‘is’, ‘was’, ‘am, ‘are’, ‘were’ = wà

‘is not’, ‘was not’, ‘are not’, ‘were not’ = ‘kò sí’

While, a Yòrùbà article ‘ní’ is placed before the preposition in use, as given in the examples below:

 

Usage of Common Preposition:

    1. Father is in the room – Bàbá ní inú yàrá
    2. Who was inside? – Tani ó ní inú?
    3. Come out – Wà ní íta.
    4. Be coming outside – Máa bọ̀ ní íta.
    5. These men are infront of me – Àwọn ọkúnrin yìí ní iwájú mi     
    6. The bride is before the bridegroom – Ìyáwó ní iwájú ọkọ–ìyáwó
    7. The parents stand behind/at the back – Àwọn òbì dúró ní ẹ̀hìn.
    8. Stand beside us – Dúró ni ẹ̀gbẹ́ wa  
    9. The lamps are under the table – Àwọn àtùpà ní

 

CHAPTER 8 – ORÍ KẸJỌ

OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH:  

CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions are words used to join two or more words or sentences together.

Common Conjunctions are:

and – àti

or – tàbi

either /whether /may be  – bóyá

that – pé

but – sùgbọ́n

because – torí pé (remember “why”– torí kini”)

when/while – nígbà tí

except – àfi; àyàfi

if – tí….bá

if not – tí ….. kò bá

until/till – títí di

where – ibi tí

what – ohun tí

which  – èyí tí

why – ìdí  tí

how – bí

not –   …kọ́; kì í ṣe

so – torí nàá.

 

Usage – Lílò

  1. Husand and wife – Ọkọ àti ìyàwó
  2. You or him – Ìwọ tàbí òun
  3. Either a Whiteman or an African – Bóyá Òyìnbó tàbí Ènìyàn Dúdú
  4. May be the younger or the elder sister – Bóyá àbúrò tàbí ẹ̀gbọ́n obìnrin
  5. There is soup but no knife – Ọbè wà sùgbọ́n kò sí ọ̀bẹ.
  6. May be a wrapper not a blouse – Bóyá ìró ni, bùbá kọ́
  7. It is you not they – Ìwọ ni àwọn kọ́/Ìwọ ni kì í ṣe àwọn.

 

Use of “Where”, “What”, “Which”, “Why” and “How” As Conjunctions.

(Compare with their usages as Interrogative pronouns)

 

Usage – Lílò

  1. Don’t say where is he – Má sọ ibi tí ó wà.
  2. Don’t say what you don’t know – Má sọ ohun tí ìwọ kò mọ̀.

 

IṢẸ́ ỌPỌLỌ      

      1. Jackie Chan or Bruce Lee? – _______________
      2. Ènìyàn Dúdú àti Òyìnbò – _________________
      3. There is pot but no water – Ìkòkò wà, _________
      4. I am, not she – __________________________
      5. Maybe Charles is coming – _________________
      6. I am not singing until he will come – __________
      7. Ìyàwó ti wá sùgbọ̀n ọkọ n bọ̀ – ______________

 

CHAPTER 9 – ORÍ KẸSÀ ÁN

                OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH:  

ADJECTIVES – Ọ̀RỌ̀ AJÚWE

 

Adjectives are words which describes a noun.

Díẹ̀ ní inú wọn ni:

good – dára, rere

bad /evil/wicked – burú

black – dúdú

dark (complexion) – dúdú

red – pupa

fair (complexion) – pupa

beautiful – rẹwà

ugly – búrẹwà

tall – ga

high – gíga

short – kúrú

low – bẹ̀rẹ̀

fat – sanra

slender/slim [in case of stature] – tẹ́ẹ́rẹ́

thin [in case of object] – tírín

big – tóbi

small/little – kére   kékeré

many/much – pọ̀

new – tuntun

old – gbó, dàgbà

young – ọ̀dọ́

ripe – pọ́n

sweet –dùn [Remember; “dun” is pronounced as “doon” and not “don” in English language]

happy – inú ….dùn

sour – kan

sad – banújẹ́

wide – fẹ̀

expensive/ scarce – wọ́n; ṣọ̀wọ́n

bitter – korò

full – kún

empty – sófo

cold – tutu; tútù

hot – gbóná

light(weight)– fúyẹ́

heavy  (in the case of weight) – wúwo

great – nlá

far – jìnnà

near – súnmọ́

 

Colours – Àwọn Àwọ̀

Díẹ̀ ní inú wọn ni:

White – funfun

Black – dúdú

Red – pupa

Green – àwọ̀-ewé;

Blue – òféèfé

Yellow – àyìnrín

Purple – aró; jẹ́lú

Brown – ìlẹ̀pa; àwọ̀-ilẹ̀

Golden – olómi-wúrà

                

Feelings – Ìmọ̀lára

Díẹ̀ ní inú wọn ni:

angry – bínú

happy – inú ….dùn

sad – banújẹ́

bold – ni áyà

coward – ni ojo

 

Lílo

  1. Our house is far – ilé wá jinnà
  2. Come near me – Wá, súnmọ́ mi
  3. Samson is bold –Sámsìnì ni áyà.
  4. Mubarak is not bold – Mubarak kò ni ojo
  5. Saul is a coward – Saulu ni ojo
  6. White cloth – Aṣọ funfun  [not funfun aṣọ]
  7. Honey is sweet – Oyin dùn
  8. Is the drum empty? – Ṣé àgbá sófo?
  9. Great person – Ènìyàn nlá

 

IṢẸ́ ỌPỌLỌ      

  1. Red cloth – ___________________________
  2. Our house is near – __________________________
  3. Mo ga _____________________________________
  4. Ilé wọn bẹ̀rẹ̀ – ___________________________
  5. Àgbá ṣófo – The drum is ____________________
  6. Omi tùtù – ______________
  7. Bournvita gbona – Bournvita ______________
  8. Is that girl fat? – Ṣé ọmọbìnrin yẹn _____?
  9. This yoghurt is sour – Yógọ́ọ̀tì yìí _________
  10. Ọmọ kékeré – __________________________
  11. Go near her – __________________________

 

More Usage of Adjectives – Lílò Ọ̀rọ̀-Ajúwe Síwájú sí i:

  1. The Lord is good but Satan is Evil – Olúwa dára sùgbọ́n Satani burú
  2. My mother is dark – Ìyá mi dúdú
  3. Charcoal is black – Èédú dúdú
  4. Red (palm) oil – Epo pupa
  5. Agbani is fair and beautiful – Agbani pupa, ó rẹwá.
  6. Gorillas are ugly – Àwọn ìnàkì búrẹwà
  7. High school (secondary or college) – Ilé ẹ̀kọ́-gíga
  8. Yokozuna is fat and big – Yokozuna sanra, ó  tóbi

 

HOW TO COMPARE TO OR MORE THINGS

Positive Comparative Superlative

Tall – ga taller – ga jù…. lọ none

Fat – sanra fatter – sanra jù ….lọ none

Big – tóbi bigger – tóbi jù ….lọ none

Etc.

 

Lílo:

  1. Haruna is fatter than Gladys – Haruna sanra jù Gladys lọ.
  2. She is taller than me – Ó ga jù mi lọ
  3. Reinhard was bigger than him – Reinhard tóbi jù u lọ

 

IṢẸ́ ỌPỌLỌ      

  1. Who is taller? – __________________________
  2. Which is better? – ________________________

 

Some Common Verbs – Ọ̀rọ̀-Ìṣe

abuse – bú

accept/collect – gbá; tẹ́wọ́gbà

answer – dáhùn

be complete – parí

begin – bẹ̀rẹ̀

bless – bùkún

break (e.g. breakable plates, plastics, clay objects) – fọ́

break (e.g. stick) – kán

bring – mú…..wá

build – kọ́

build – kọ́

burn – jó; jóna

burn – sun

buy – rà; rajà

carry – gbé

catch – gba … mú

close – pa …. dé

collapse – wó

come – wá

come back/return – dé/padà

comfort/console – tù … nínú

cook – dáná; ṣè

cough – húkọ́

count – kà

create – dá

cry/weep – sunkún

curse – ṣépè [curse – èpè]

dance – jó

deliver (baby) – bímọ

dish out – bù

drink – mu

eat – jẹ/jẹun

end – parí

enter – wọlé

fall – ṣubú

fetch (water) – pọn

follow – tẹ̀lé

frown – rojú

give – fún

go – lọ; máa lọ

go out – jáde

hate – kóríra

hear – gbọ́

help – ràn …. Lọ́wọ́

kneel – kúnlé

lead – ṣiwájú

learn – kẹ́kọ̀ọ́

leave (a place) – kúró

leave (to let go) – fi ….. sílẹ̀

like – fẹ́ràn

live – wà láàye

look – wò

love –nifẹ̀ẹ́

offend – ṣẹ̀

praise – yìn

prostrate – dọ̀bálẹ̀

put on (cap) – dé cap/hat – fìlà

question/ask – bèèrè

redeem – rà … padà

reject/refuse – kọ̀

resurrect – jínde

ridicule – fi … ṣe yẹ̀yẹ́

roast – yan/sun

save – gbàlà

see/find – rí

sell – tà; tajà

sew – rán

shift – sún

shout – pariwo ; kígbe

shut/lock – tì ….. pa

sit – jókòó

slap – gbá ….. létí

sleep – sùn

smile/laugh – rẹ́rìn ín

sneeze – sín

spit – tutọ́

spoil – bàjẹ̀

stand – dìde

sweep – gbá

take/agree – gbá

talk/speak – sọ̀rọ̀

tell – sọ fun ; wí fun

thank – dúpẹ́

think – ronú

tie (head tie) – wé headtie –gèlè

to run – sáré

understand – yé

use – lò

wake – jí

walk – rìn

wash – fọ̀

wear/put on (shoes or clothes) – wò

work – ṣe iṣẹ́ or ṣisẹ́

worship – jọ́sìn

wrap (wrapper) – ró

write – kọ;kọwé

Common Prepositions are:

about – nípa

above/on/over – ní orì

after – kọjá (in telling the clock time)

among/between –ní ààrin

at – ní

back/behind/after – ní ẹ̀hìn

before – kù (in telling the clock time)

before/infront – ní iwájú

corner – ní igun

down – ní ilẹ̀ (derivative of “ground”–ilẹ̀)

for – fún

from – láti

in/inside – ní inú

out/outside – ní ìta

side/beside – ní ẹ̀gbẹ́

under/beneath – ní abẹ́

up/on top – ní òkè

with – pẹ̀lú

Some Common Adjective

bad /evil/wicked – burú

beautiful – rẹwà

big – tóbi

bitter – korò

black/dark (complexion) – dúdú

cold – tutù

empty – sófo

expensive/ scarce – wọ́n; ṣọ̀wọ́n

fair (complexion) – pupa

far – jìnnà

fat – sanra

full – kún

good – dára, rere

great – nlá

happy – inú ….dùn

heavy (in the case of weight) – wúwo

high – giga

hot – gbóná

light – mọ́lẹ̀ (derivative of light-ìmọ́lẹ̀)

light (in the case weight) – fúyẹ́

low – bẹ̀rẹ̀

many/much – pọ̀

near – súnmọ́

new – tuntun

old – gbó, dàgbà

red – pupa

ripe – pón

sad – banújẹ́

short – kúrú

slender/slim [in case of stature] – tẹ́ẹ́rẹ́

small/little – kére; kékeré

sour – kan

sweet –dùn [remember; “dun” is pronounced as “doon” and

not “don” in English language]

tall – ga

thin [in case of object] – tírín

ugly – búrẹwà

wide – fẹ̀

young – ọ̀dọ́

Adjective [contd.] Colour – Àwọ̀

white – funfun

black – dúdú

red – pupa

green – àwọ̀-ewé

blue – òféèfé

yellow – àyìnrín

Adjectives [contd.] Feelings – Ìmọ́lára

angry – bínú

happy – inú ….dùn

sad – banújẹ́

bold – ní áyà

coward – ní ojo

 

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